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  相关无损检测标准动态  
无损检测手册简介
来源: 发布时间: 2011-09-29 11:17 23:11:14 浏览次数:

     无损检测手册是机体、发动机和部件制造厂编制的无损检测程序,不仅包含主要的和辅助的结构,而且包括专利的部件的检测程序,是机体、发动机和部件制造厂在真实的构件上和原位实际状态下经过验证可以实施的程序,每种机型均有相应的无损检测手册,制造厂家定期进行更新和修正,在两次定期进行更新和修正之间通常发布一些临时修正,在使用时要注意采用有效版本。
    
除无损检测手册外,制造厂家也会根据产品的使用状况发布服务通告,如果服务通告中要求的无损检测程序在产品无损检测手册中已经存在,该服务通告只给出在无损检测手册中的零件和检验程序号,否则在服务通告中会与按所用产品手册的相同标准给出详细的检测程序。
    
作为NDT人员应对所维护的机型的无损检测手册(NTM)有清晰的了解,能够了解不同机型无损检测要求的差异,掌握无损检测手册中各种检测方法的通用要求,熟练应用无损检测手册中各种检测程序指导检测工作。由于所有机型的无损检测手册都是按照ATA规范编写的(ATA100 2-9《无损检测手册》),因此不同机型的无损检测手册的格式基本是一样的。下面就按照BOEING NDTMAIRBUS NTMCMM进行介绍。

一.波音系列飞机无损检测手册简介

下面介绍BOEING NDTM 的组成和使用:

在查阅手册时,首先应确认使用的手册是最新有效的版本,即是满足适航要求的技术文件,这才能作为工作依据,手册的版本号、更新日期在前言页上可以查到,在有效页清单中可以知道更新、修改的情况,如下图所示Revision ninety-two, dated August 5, 2007


NONDESTRUCTIVE TEST MANUAL

BOEING DOCUMENT D6-37239

TOAll holders of Nondestructive Test Manual, Boeing Document D6-37239.

Revision ninety-two, dated August 5, 2007, to the 737 Nondestructive Test Manual is attached. This manual is revised/changed on a four month cycle.

波音737 NDT手册组成(文件号D637239

1).介绍

1)手册概述

2)手册的组织

3)章节号

4)有效页

5)技术支持数据

6)出版变更要求

2).Part 1 通用部分

151-00-0051-00-01缩略语、飞机站位等基础数据;

251-01-00人员资格、方法选择、方法比较、设备制造厂家信息等等;

3 51-01-0151-00-03复合材料的检查;


4 51-01-04参考试块的铆钉安装;

(5 51-0251-06各种无损检测方法的概述

3) 波音NDT手册中的涡流检测程序实例:

1.PURPOSE

A. Use this procedure to do an inspection for surface cracks in aluminum parts.

B. This procedure uses an impedance plane display instrument.

C. Part 6, 51-00-00, Fig. 4 is an alternative inspection procedure.

2 Equipment

A. General

(1) Use inspection equipment that can be calibrated on the reference standard

as specified in paragraph 4.

(2) Refer to Part 1, 51-01-00, for data about the equipment manufacturers.

B. Instrument

(1) Use an eddy current instrument that:

(a) Has an impedance plane display.

(b) Operates at a frequency range of 50 kHz to 500 kHz.

(2)The instruments specified below were used to prepare this procedure.

    (a) Phasec 1.1; Hocking Krautkramer.

(b) Nortec NDT-19e; Staveley Instruments.

(c) MIZ-22; Zetec, Inc.

 2、探头Probes

(1) Use a probe that:

(a) Operates at a frequency in the range of 50 kHz to 500 kHz.

(b) Has the configuration shown in Detail I.

(C) Can satisfactorily do the angularity check as shown in Detail II.

(d)Can satisfactorily do the probe shield test of Detail III. This is necessary if the inspection area is near adjacent structure to make sure the adjacent structure will not change the signals.

NOTE: Shielded probes are recommended.

3、试块Reference Standards

(1) Use reference standards 126, 188A, 189 or NDT1048. See Details IV thru VII for data about the reference standards.

 (2) Other reference standards can be used if they are equivalent to those shown in Detail IV thru VII.

E. 辅助工具Special Tools

(1) Use a nonconductive circle template as shown in Detail IX to help examine near the edges of parts for cracks.

(2) Use a nonconductive straightedge as shown in Details X and XI to help examine the area around flush head fasteners for cracks.

NOTE: The circle template and straightedge help to keep the probe a constant distance from a fastener head or structural edge. The signal will slowly increase when the probe gets closer to an edge of a part.

三、检查准备Preparation for Inspection

A. Get access to the inspection area.

B. Remove loose paint, dirt and sealant from the surface of the inspection area.

四 仪器标定Instrument Calibration

A. Set the frequency between 50 and 500 kHz.

NOTE: To examine scribe lines, set the frequency between 50 and 150 kHz if

possible.

B.  Calibrate the instrument with the applicable reference standard. Paragraph 5.E. identifies the different types of structural configurations that can be examined. The reference standards to use for the different structural configurations to be examined are:

(1)Large Areas, Near an Edge, On an Edge, Radius: Use reference standard 126.

NOTE: To examine an area where scribe lines have been removed, and before more material is removed for an insurance blend, it is permitted to use a reference standard with a notch depth as small as 0.008 inch (0.20 mm). It is not permitted to use a notch depth that is less than 0.008 inch (0.20 mm). Before you blend scribe

lines, make sure it is permitted in the repair instructions.

(2). Flush Head Fasteners: Use reference standard NDT1048.

(3) Protruding Head Fasteners: Use reference standard 188A.

C.  Set the vertical to horizontal gain between 2:1 and 4:1.

D.  Set the filters as follows:

(1). Set the high-pass filter to off or zero Hz.

(2). If the instrument has a low-pass filter:

(a) Set the low-pass filter to its highest value

(b).Decrease the filter value to get a stable dot.

E. Put a nonconductive shim on the reference standard. The thickness of the shim must be equivalent (| 0.003 inch (0.08 mm)) to the paint thickness on the airplane.

F. Put the probe on the reference standard at least 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) away from the EDM notch and the edge of the reference standard.

G. Balance the instrument.

H. Adjust the balance point to 20 percent of the display as shown in Detail VIII.

I.  Adjust the instrument for lift-off. Adjust the phase control so that the lift-off signal moves horizontally to the left when the probe is lifted off of the part surface.

J. Move the probe across the notch in the reference standard.

K. Adjust the gain to get a signal that is 20 to 40 percent of the display above the balance point as shown in Detail VIII.

L. If the instrument has an alarm, set the alarm as shown in Detail VIII.

M. Move the probe across the notch in the reference standard to find the maximum scan speed. The scan speed is too fast if the signal is less than 90 percent of the calibration notch signal.

NOTE: Higher scan speeds are possible with a higher low-pass filter value.

五、检查Inspection Procedure

A. Put the probe on the inspection surface.

B. Balance the instrument.

C. Adjust the balance point to 20 percent of the display as shown in Detail VIII.

NOTE: Do not adjust the gain. Gain adjustments will make the instrument

calibration unsatisfactory.

D. Make sure the signal moves horizontally to the left when the probe is lifted off of the part surface.

E. Slowly make a scan of the inspection area and monitor the instrument display during the scan. Do the scan as follows:

(1) Use a scan pattern that:

(a) Will help you find cracks that are 0.1 inch (2.5 mm) in length.

(b) Move the probe across the crack at 90`. This is done to increase the probability that you will find a crack.

NOTE: To examine an area where a scribe line was removed by ble无损检测ng, make small scans across the location where the scribe line was.

Do not make the scans too large as this can cause false i无损检测cations from the change in clad thickness caused by the blend operation.

(2) During the scan, move the probe no faster than the maximum scan speed that was identified during calibration.

   (3). Do the scan as follows for the specified structural configurations:

(a) Large Areas: Use a grid system to do the inspection of large areas. The grid lines must be spaced so that when the probe is moved along the grid lines, the probe will cross the smallest crack you want to find at least two times.

NOTE; If you are not sure of the minimum crack length, use 0.1 inch (2.5 mm).

       (b) Flush Head Fasteners: Use a nonconductive circle template to do inspections around flush head fasteners. Put the template adjacent to the fastener so that you can find cracks that extend 0.1 inch (2.5 mm) from the fastener head as shown in Detail IX.

 (c) Protruding Head Fasteners: To examine areas around fasteners with protruding heads, use the fastener head or the washer as a probe guide as shown in Detail XII.

 (d) Radius: To examine the radius of a part, keep the probe perpendi cular to the radius surface. If the crack direction is not known, move the probe along and across the radius as shown in Detail XIII.

      (e) Edges: When you do an inspection near the edge of a part, use a nonconductive straightedge to keep the probe the same distance from the edge of the part. See Detail X to see how to examine a part near the edge. See Detail XI to examine the edge of a part.

(4). Make a mark at the locations that cause signals that are more than 20 percent of the display above the balance point.

NOTE; To find the end of the crack, continue to move the probe across the crack until there is no more crack signal.

(5). Frequently do a check of the instrument calibration as follows:

NOTE: Do not adjust the gain.

(a) Put the probe on the reference standard to get a signal from the notch.

(b) Compare the signal you got from the notch during calibration with the signal you get now.,,

(c) If the signal has changed 10 percent or more, do the calibration and inspection again.

六、检查结果Inspection Results

A. Fast upscale signals that are more than 50 percent of the signal height from the reference notch are signs of defects.

 

B. Compare the signal that occurs during the inspection to the signal you got from the notch in the reference standard.

 

NOTE: The signal from a crack can have less horizontal movement than the signal from the notch in the reference standard. See Detail VIII.

(1) To find the end of a crack, continue to move the probe across the crack until there is no more crack signal.

(2) To make an estimate of the depth of a crack that is less than 0.02 inch (0.5 mm) deep, compare the horizontal movement of the crack signal to the horizontal movement of the reference standard notch.A reference standard with notches that are less than 0.02 inch(0.5 mm) deep can also be used.

C. The conditions specified below can also cause defect signals:

(1).The probe is moved too close to an edge. Use a nonconductive straightedge to keep the probe the same distance from the edge.

(2).A worn probe coil. Put a piece of tape on the surface of the probe coil or get a new probe and calibrate the instrument again.

(3) Local changes in material conductivity. Compare the signal to the

signal from the reference standard. Signals from conductivity changes will be slower than the signal from the reference standard.

D. Do one of the procedures that follow to make sure a signal is the result of a defect.

(1)Remove the surface finish and do a visual inspection with 10-power  (or higher) magnification and sufficient light.

(2) Do a penetrant inspection of the area as specified in Standard Overhaul Practices Manual, Subject 20-20-02, " Penetrant Inspection Methods".
. A320系列飞机无损检测手册简介

下面再介绍有关AIRBUS NTM 的使用

对于AIRBUS公司飞机维修而言,常用的资料如下表:

 

简称

中英文全称

1

AMM

Aircraft Maintenance Manual 航空器维修手册

2

ASM

Aircraft Schematic Manual 航空器图册

3

AWM

Aircraft Wiring Manual 航空器布线图册

4

IPC

Illustrated Parts Catalog 图解零件目录

5

SRM

Structural Repair Manual  结构修理手册

6

MFP

Facility Planning Manual  Maintenance Facility Planning 维修设施计划

7

MPD

Maintenance Planning Document 维修计划文件

8

NTM

Nondestructive Testing Manual 无损检测手册

9

TEM

Illustrated Tool and Equipment Manual 图解工具与设备手册

10

TSM

Trouble Shooting Manual 排故手册

11

FCOM

Flight Crew Operating Manual 机组操作手册

12

FMGS

FMGS Pilot’s Guide 飞行管理和引导系统驾驶员手册

13

MMEL

Master Minimum Equipment List 主最低限度设备清单

14

FM

Flight Manual 飞行手册

15

AC

Airplane Characteristics For Airport Planning 用于机场计划的航空器特征

16

ARM

Aircraft Recovery Manual航空器恢复手册

17

QRHB

Quick Reference Hand Book 快速参考手册

18

CLS

Cargo Loading System Manual 货物装载系统手册

19

WBM

Weight and Balance Manual 载重与平衡手册

20

ACRT

ADDITIONAL Cross Reference Tables

21

TDFC

Technical Documentation Familiarization Course 技术文件熟知课程

22

SM

Standard Manual 标准手册

23

CAATS

Computer Assisted Aircraft Trouble Shooting 计算机辅助航空器排故

24

ESPM

Electrical Standard Practices Manual 电子标准工艺手册

 

NTM中,按照各类方法进行了分类,也采用了按ATA章节进行查询,


AIRBUS NTM中,各种无损检测方法的章节代码与BOEING NDTM的表示略有差别,在使用时应注意区分:

PART1  -  GENERAL

PART2  -  X-RAY

PART3  -  GAMMA RAY

PART4  -  ULTRASONIC

PART5  -  RESONANCE FREQUENCY

PART6  -  EDDY CURRENT

PART7  -  MAGNETIC PARTICLE

PART8  -  PENETRANT

PART9  -  VISUAL

PART10  - THERMOGRAPHIC

在不同手册中使用的缩写有不同的含义,在使用时应注意区别。


BOEING NTM一样,在AIRBUS NTM手册前言部分的介绍 (Introduction)和有效飞机清单(AIRPLANE ALLOCATION LIST,对使用者非常有用,通过查阅飞机的生产序号、型号等信息,对在手册使用时不同的有效性有所帮助,如:

在涉及不同的发动机选型时,涉及对不同发动机适用的吊舱结构等应注意有效性选择:

在具体工作中,还应注意对选择方法对应的不同程序的应用:

AIRBUS NTM各个检查程序中与BOEING NTM类似,均按照下列结构,对检测程序给出了详细步骤指导工作者进行相应的检测工作:

1.       检查的结构和区域(COMPONENT OR AREA TO BE INSPECTED

2.       可能存在的损伤(DESCRIPTION OF POSSIBLE DAMAGE

3.       引用文件(RELATED DOCUMENTS

4.       设备和器材(EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS

5.       检查准备 (PREPARATION FOR INSPECTION

6.       设备标定、校准(INSTRUMENT CALIBRATION

7.       检查步骤(INSPECTION PROCEDURE

8.       验收标准(ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

9.       NDT后处理(FINAL NDT REQUIREMENTS

其它手册中涉及NDT检测的内容

对发动机和机载附件的修理与检查时,除参考除参考主机厂的NDT手册及SOPM外,还应参考发动机及附件制造厂提供的检验规范和检测程序,如附件修理过程中,应不低于附件CMMCOMPONENT MAINTENANCE MANUAL)给出的验收(检测)标准。在AIRBUS320系列飞机选装的件号为C20225410的刹车组件,在修理过程中,对应不同的使用和修理深度有不同的检查范围和要求,在使用中应仔细对照,并确认CMM给出的规范要求与所装机型规范的差异。

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